Vaginoza bacteriana

Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis. The most common condition among women.

The vaginal microbiota is of great importance in maintaining vaginal health and protecting against disease. Bacteria living in the human vagina are believed to be the first line of defense against vaginal infections, as they produce natural barriers that inhibit the proliferation of agents harmful to female health.

However, the composition the vaginal microbiome can vary throughout a woman's life in response to endogenous and exogenous factors such as vaginal infections, age, pregnancy, and drug treatments. Altering populations of microorganisms in the vaginal microbiome can have serious effects, including incidence bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Since changes in the microbiota can be involved in certain pathologies and significantly influence well-being, it is advisable to monitor and understand its composition, looking for indicators of health maintenance. Be careful and if possible have a trusted specialist to support you. The earlier any disturbances are identified, the better!

Bacterial vaginosis

The vaginal microbiome is composed of beneficial and commensal microorganisms, which help to stabilizing the pH of the vaginal canal and prevents the development of pathogenic bacteria and is essential for maintaining the balance for a healthy microenvironment. When the microorganisms in this environment are out of balance, dysbiosis can be identified, which can cause diseases and unwanted situations

The most common vaginal dysbiosis worldwide is bacterial vaginosis, which is characterized by a change in the microbial composition including a reduction in the proportion of Lactobacillus and an increase in the proportion of anaerobic bacteria such as Gardnerella vaginalis , Atopobium spp., Prevotella spp. , in addition to high levels of some amino acids (tyrosine, glutamate). Several epidemiological studies have reported that bacterial vaginosis is a risk factor for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

The species of Lactobacillus promote the maintenance of vaginal homeostasis, prevent the colonization and growth of harmful microorganisms, including those responsible for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This defensive function is exerted by several mechanisms, such as the reduction of vaginal pH ( maintain the ideal pH value for microbiome balance ), the production of antimicrobial compounds, such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins, which contribute to a healthy vaginal microbiome and establish a defense against invading pathogens.

Bacterial vaginosis is not a contagious disease, but important complications can occur; such as premature birth in pregnant women, pelvic inflammatory disease and an increase in sexually transmitted infections . In some cases, the presence of symptoms can be observed, such as: intense itching, burning or discomfort when urinating, fetid smell and pasty white discharge, which can also have a yellowish or gray color.

Although it can cause a lot of discomfort, vaginosis can be easily treated with antibiotics, and if not treated properly, it can become recurrent, in which case it is classified as a recurrent infection. Therefore, it is very important to go to the gynecologist to perform the necessary tests, identify the problem and start the appropriate treatment.

Bacterial vaginosis vs aerobic vaginitis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV) they are conditions of a non-ideal vaginal microbiota. The non-ideal microbiome is one characterized by a change in composition, with a low proportion of Lactobacillus for a community with a high proportion of pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria and pathobiota (high diversity). Suboptimal microbiome can be associated with vaginal symptoms, genital inflammation and negative health outcomes

so much BV, and also will have similar clinical signs and symptoms that can make differential and accurate diagnosis difficult. Among these signs and conditions are the presence of a low proportion or absence Lactobacillus , increased secretion (with fishy odor in BV and severe forms of VA, foul odor may be present) and increased pH.

However, the composition of microorganisms differs between these conditions. The vaginal microbiota in AV is composed of commensal aerobic microorganisms of intestinal origin. The most common bacteria are: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus group B (Streptococcus agalactiae) and Enterococcus faecalis . BV is usually polymicrobial , characterized by the presence of mainly anaerobic microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis , Prevotella , Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus. However, simultaneous occurrence of VA, VB and candidiasis is possible.

Aerobic vaginitis, without an accurate diagnosis, can lead to incorrect treatment or even more serious complications, such as inflammatory desquamative vaginitis, which can increase the risk of premature birth, chorioamnionitis and fetal funsitis during pregnancy.

Moreover, identification of microbiota composition and correct diagnosis are important because the treatments are completely different . Remember that inappropriate use of antimicrobials can lead to the development of bacterial resistance, so medical evaluation is essential.

For these reasons, identifying the composition of the vaginal microbiota is of great importance. exam Profil Plus , through high-performance DNA sequencing – RT-PCR, makes it possible to distinguish the composition of the microbiota, allowing a more accurate diagnosis and a more effective treatment. It also analyzes a variety of vaginal markers and sexually transmitted diseases.

With the results Profil Plus vaginal microbiota becomes an ally for women's health and clinical practice, as it helps health professionals to identify and characterize the vaginal microbial profile and its relationship with women's health, allowing a better understanding of the clinical picture and directing more assertive treatments and more effective depending on the detected microorganisms. In addition, it allows the adoption of preventive measures for women's health, avoiding the complications that may arise from the imbalance of the vaginal microbiota.

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